Warrant Of Precedence

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[Published in the Bangladesh Gazette, Extraordinary, dated the
20th September, 1986
GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH
PRESIDENT’S SECRETARIAT
Cabinet Division
NOTIFICATION
Dhaka, September 11, 1986
(With amendments up to December, 2003)
No. CD- 10/1/85-Rules/361.- In Super session of all previous notification on the Warrant of Precedence, the President is pleased to direct that the following table be henceforth observed with respect to the precedence of persons hereinafter named, namely:-
1. President of the Republic
2. Prime Minister of the Republic
3. Speaker of the Parliament
4. Chief Justice of Bangladesh Former Presidents of the Republic
5. Cabinet Ministers of the Republic Chief Whip
Deputy Speaker of the Parliament
Leader of the Opposition in Parliament
6. Persons holding appointments accorded status of a Minister without being members of the Cabinet
7. Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary and High Commissioners of Commonwealth countries accredited to Bangladesh.
8. Chief Election Commissioner.
Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission.
Deputy leader of the Opposition in Parliament.
Judges of the Supreme Court (Appellate Division)
Ministers of State of the Republic
Whip.
9. Election Commissioners.
Judges of the Supreme Court (High Court Division)
Persons holding appointments accorded status of a Minister of State.
10. Deputy Ministers of the Republic.
11. Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary accredited to Bangladesh.
Persons holding appointments accorded status of a Deputy Minister.
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12. Cabinet Secretary
Chiefs of Staff of the Army, Navy and Air Force.
Principal Secretary to the Government.
13. Members of the Parliament.
14. Visiting Ambassadors and High Commissioners not accredited to Bangladesh.
15. Attorney-General
Comptroller and Auditor-General
Ombudsman.
Governor, Bangladesh Bank.
16. Chairman, Public Service Commission.
Chairman, University Grants commission.
Inspector General of Police.
Members, Planning Commission.
Officers of the rank of Major General in the army and equivalent in the Navy and the Air force.
Secretaries to the Government including Secretary to the Parliament.
17. Charge-d’ affaires apied of Foreign Countries.
Director General of the National Security Intelligence.
Full-time Members, University Grants Commission.
National Professors.
Officers holding the status of Secretaries to the Government.
Vice-chancellors of Universities.
18. Mayors of Civic Corporation within the jurisdiction of their respective Corporations.
19. Additional Attorney-General.
Additional Secretaries to the Government.
Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission.
Chairman, Board of Land Administration.
Chairman, Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation
Chairman, Bangladesh chemical Industries Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Oil, Gas And Mineral Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Power Development Board.
Chairman, Bangladesh Steel and Engineering Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Sugar and Food Industries Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Textile Mills Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Water Development Board.
Chairman, Tarrif commission.
Charge-d’ affaires ad-interim of Foreign Countries.
Director- General of Anti-Corruption.
Executive Vice-Chairman, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council.
Managing Director, Bangladesh Krishi Bank.
Managing Director, Sonali Bank.
Professors of Universities in Selection Grade.
Visiting Ambassadors and High Commissioners of Bangladesh.
-3-
20. Chairman, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.
Chairman Tea Board.
Chairman T&T Board.
Chief Architect to the Government.
Chief Conservator of Forests.
Chief Engineer, Roads and Highways Department.
Chief Engineer, Public Works Department.
Executive Chairman, Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority.
Director- General, Department of Agriculture Extension.
Director of Fisheries.
Director- General of Health Services.
Director of Livestock Services.
Director General, of Primary Education.
Director General, Secondary and Higher Secondary Education.
Director-General of Technical Education.
Division Chief, Planning commission.
Managing Director Bangladesh Biman.
Managing Director, of other Nationalised Commercial Banks.
Members of the National Board of Revenue.
Members, Public Service Commission.
Officers of the status of Additional Secretary to the Government.
Registrar of Supreme Court.
Vice-chairman, Export Promotion Bureau.
21. Additional Inspector-General of Police.
Chairman, Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority.
Chairman, Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Small & Cottage Industries Corporation.
Chairman of the Civil Aviation Authority.
Chairman, Dhaka Improvement Trust.
Chairman, National Broadcasting Authority.
Chairman, Petroleum Corporation.
Chairman, Port Authority.
Chairman, Rural Electrification Board.
Chairman, Trading Corporation of Bangladesh.
Chairman, Water And Sewerage Authority.
Chairman, Bangladesh Hand Loom Board.
Chairman, Bangladesh Sericulture Board.
Chairman, Bangladesh Jute corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Forest Industries Development Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Tourism Corporation.
Chairman, Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation.
Chief Controller of Imports and Exports.
Chief Engineer, Housing and Settlement Department.
Chief Engineer of Public Health Engineering Department.
-4-
Commissioners of Divisions within their respective charges.
Director, Bangladesh Chemical Industries Corporation (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Director, Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Director, Bangladesh Steel & Engineering Corporation (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Director, Bangladesh Sugar and food Industries Corporation (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Director, Bangladesh Textile Mills Corporation (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Director-General of Ansars & VDP.
Director, General of Bangladesh Rural Development Board.
Director, General Department of Immigration and Passport.
Director, General of Export Promotion Bureau.
Director, General Fire Services and Civil Defence.
Director, General of Food.
Director, General of Geological Survey.
Director, General of Industries.
Director, General of Land Record and Surveys.
Director, General of Post Offices.
Director, General population Control.
Director, General of Relief and Rehabilitation.
Director, General Shipping.
General Manager of Bangladesh Railway.
Joint Secretaries to the Government.
Managing Director, Bangladesh Shipping Corporation.
Managing Director of the Financial Institutions.
Managing Director, Jiban Bima Corporation.
Managing Director, Sadharan Bima Corporation.
Managing Director, Bangladesh Film Development Corporation
Member, Atomic Energy Commission if full-time member of the Board of Directors.
Member, Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation if full-time member of the Board of Directors.
Member, Bangladesh Oil, Gas and Mineral Corporation if full-time member of the Board of Directors.
Member, Bangladesh Power Development Board if full-time member of the board of Directors.
Member, Bangladesh Water Development Board if full-time member of the Board of Directors.
Ministers and Deputy High Commissioners of the rank of Ministers in Embassies, High Commissions and Missions Located in Bangladesh.
Officers of the rank of Brigadier in the Army and equivalent in the Navy and the Air Force.
Registrar, Co-operative Societies.
Surveyor-General of Bangladesh.
-5-
22. Additional Chief Architect.
Additional Chief Engineers of Government Departments.
Additional Director-General, Health Services.
Chairman, Chittagong Development Authority
Chairman, Rajshahi Development Authority.
Chairman, Khulna Development Authority
Collectors of Customs and Excise
Commissioners of Divisions outside their respective charges.
Commissioners of Taxes.
Consuls General.
Controller General of Accounts
Controller General of Defence Finance.
Counsellors of Embassies, High Commissions and Legations of Foreign and Commonwealth Government.
Deputy Inspectors General of Police within their respective charges.
Director of Agriculture Extension.
Director of general, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute.
Director General, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute.
Director General, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute.
Director General, Department of Social Services.
Director General, National Institute of Mass Communication.
Director General of Youth Development Department.
Director, Military lands and Cantonment.
Director General, Bangladesh Industrial Technical Assistance Centre.
Director General, Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institute.
Inspector General of Prisons.
Joint Chief, Planning Commission.
Member, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Member, Bangladesh export Processing Zone Authority (if full- time member of the Board of Directors).
Member, Tea Board (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Officers of the rank of Full Colonel in the Army and equivalent in the Navy and the Air Force.
Officers of the status of Joint Secretary to the Government.
Principals of Medical and Engineering Colleges and Professors of Universities.
-6-
23. Additional Commissioners (within respective charges).
Director, Bangladesh jute Corporation (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Director, Bangladesh Forest Industries Corporation (if full-time member of Board of Directors).
Director, Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Director, Bangladesh Tourism Corporation (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Director, Bangladesh Film Development Corporation (if full-time of the Board of Directors).
Director, Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation (if full-time member of the Board of Directors.
Director of Education.
Director, Petroleum Corporation (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Director, Bangladesh Rural Development Board (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Director, Trading Corporation of Bangladesh (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Mayors of Civic Corporations outside their respective charges.
Member, Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Member, Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Corporation (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
[Member, Bangladesh Handloom Board (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Member, Bangladesh Sericulture Board (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Member, Civil Aviation Authority (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Member, Port Authority (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Member, Rural Electrification Board (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Member, Bangladesh Shipping Corporation (if full time member of the Board of Directors).
Military, Naval and Air Attaches to Embassies and Legations and Military, Naval and Air Advisors to High Commissions.
Professors of Medical and Engineering Colleges.
24. Chairmen of District Councils (if elected) within their respective charges.
Commandant, Marine Academy.
Deputy Commissioners within their respective charges.
Deputy Inspectors General of Police outside their charges.
Director, Bangladesh Industrial Technical Assistance Center (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
Director, Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institute (if full-time member of the Board of Directors).
-7-
District and Sessions Judges within their respective charges.
Officers of the rank if Lieutenant Colonel in the Army and equivalent in the Navy and the Air Force.
25. Chairmen (if elected) of class I Municipalities within their charges.
Chairmen of Upazila Parishads within their respective charges.
Civil Surgeons within their respective charge.
Deputy Secretaries of the government.
Officers of the rank of Major in the Army and equivalent in the Navy and the Air Force.
Superintendents of Police within their respective charges.
Notes:
1. The order in the warrant of Precedence is to be observed for State and ceremonial occasions as well as for all purpose of the Government.
2. The entries in the above table, which are in alphabetical order on each article, apply exclusively to the persons mentioned in the table of precedence and, while regulating their relative precedence with each other do not give them any precedence over members of the non-official community in Bangladesh, not mentioned in the table who shall take their place according to usage.
3. Persons in the above table will take precedence in order of the number of the entries. Those included in the same number will take precedence inter se according to the date of entry into that number. When two or more persons enter an article on the same date, their inter se seniority will be fixed in the basis of length of class I service, in case of officers, and in the case on an elected office bearer given precedence over permanent Government servants entering the article on the same date. Amongst elected office-bearers entering article on the same date precedence will be accorded by alphabetical order of the surname. Officers of the Defense Services, in the same article will rank inter se according to their relative service seniority.
4. When a person holds more than one position in the table, he will be entitled to the highest position accorded to him.
5. Officers who are temporarily officiating in any number of the table he will take precedence in that number below permanent incumbents.
6. All officers not mentioned in the above table, whose rank is regulated by comparison with rank in the Army will have the same precedence with reference to Civil Servant as is enjoyed by military officers of equivalent grades (see table of equivalent ranks given under note 9 below).
7. Married ladies, unless by virtue of holding an appointment themselves they are entitled to a higher position in the table, shall take place according to the precedence herein assigned to their respective husbands.
8. All other persons not mentioned in the above table will take precedence according to general usage, which is to be explained and determined by the President in case any question shall arise.
-8-
9. Table of Equivalent Ranks:
Army
Navy
Air Force
Remarks.
General
Admiral
Air Chief Marshal
Lieutenant General
Vive-Admiral
Air Marshal
Major General
Rear Admiral
Air Vice-Marshal
Brigadier
Commander
Air Commodore
Colonel
Captain
Group Captain
Lieutenant
Commander
Wing
Colonel
Commander
Major
Lieutenant Commander
Squadron Leader
Captain
Lieutenant
Flight Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Sub-Lieutenant
Flying Officer
Second
Acting
Pilot Officer
Lieutenant
Sub-Lieutenant
Reserve and Non-Regular Officers take
Precedence in the same rank after regular
Officers holding the same rank. When called
Up for embodied
(Whole-time) service they take seniority in
their substantive rank as
on date of recall with
but immediately after
regular Officers holding
the same substantive
rank on that date.
By order of the President
M.M. Zaman
Cabinet Secretary.

Warrant Of  Precedence In India

WARRANT OF PRECEDENCE In India

PRESIDENTS’ SECRETARIAT

New Delhi, the 26th July, 1979

No. 33-Pres/79.—In supersession of all previous notifications issued on the

subject, the following Table, with respect to the rank and precedence of the persons

named therein which has been approved by the President, is published for general

information:—

1. President

2. Vice-President.

3. Prime Minister.

4. Governors of States within their respective States.

5. Former Presidents.

5A. Deputy Prime Minister.

6. Chief Justice of India.

Speaker of the Lok Sabha

7. Cabinet Ministers of the Union.

Chief Ministers of States within their respective States.

Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission.

Former Prime Ministers.

Leaders of Opposition in the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.

7A. *Holders of the Bharat Ratna decoration.

8. Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary and High Commissioners of Com-

monwealth countries accredited to India

Chief Ministers of States outside their respective States.

Governors of States outside their respective States.

9. Judges of the Supreme Court.

9A. *Chief Election Commissioner.

“”Comptroller & Auditor-General of India.

10. Deputy Chairman, Rajya Sabha.

Deputy Chief Ministers of States.

Deputy Speaker, Lok Sabha.

Members of the Planning Commission.

Ministers of States of the Union *[and any other Minister in the Ministry of

Defence for Defence matters].

11. Attorney-General of India.

Cabinet Secretary.

Lieutenant Governors within their respective Union Territories.

12. Chiefs of Staff holding the rank of full General or equivalent rank.

13. Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary accredited to India.

14. Chairman and Speakers of State Legislatures within their respective States.

Chief Justices of High Courts within their respective jurisdictions.

15. Cabinet Ministers in State within their respective States.

Chief Ministers of Union Territories and Chief Executive Councillor, Delhi, within

their respective Union Territories.

Deputy Ministers of the Union.

16. Officiating Chiefs of Staff holding the rank of Lieutenant General or equivalent

rank.

17. »Chairman, Central Administrative Tribunal.

Chairman, Minorities Commission.

Chairman, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Commission.

Chairman, Union Public Service Commission.

Chief Justice of High Courts outside their respective jurisdictions.

Puisne Judges of High Courts within their respective jurisdictions.

18. Cabinet Ministers in States outside their respective States.

Chairmen and Speakers of State Legislatures outside their respective States.

Chairmen, Monopolies and Restructive Trade Practice Commission.

Deputy Chairmen and Deputy Speakers of State Legislature within their respec-

tive States.

Ministers of State in States within their respective States.

Ministers of Union Territories and Executive Councillors, Delhi, within their

respective Union Territories.

Speakers of Legislative Assemblies in Union Territories and Chairman of Delhi

Metropolitan Council within their respective Union Territories.

19. Chief Commissioners of Union Territories not having Councils of Ministers,

within their respective Union Territories.

Deputy Ministers in States within their respective States.

Deputy Speakers of Legislative Assemblies in Union Territories and Deputy

Chairman of Metropolitan Council Delhi, within their respective Union

Territories.

20. Deputy Chairman & Deputy Speakers of State Legislatures, outside their respec-

tive States.

Ministers of State in States outside their respective States.

Puisne Judges of High Courts outside their respective jurisdictions.

21. Members of Parliament.

22. Deputy Ministers in States outside their respective States.

23. Army Commanders/Vice Chief of the Army Staff or equivalent in other Services.

Chief Secretaries to State Governments within their respective States.

Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities.

Commissioner for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

Members, Minorities Commission.

Members, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Commission.

Officers of the rank of full General or equivalent rank.

Secretaries to the Government of India (including officers holding this office ex-

officio).

Secretary, Minorities Commission.

Secretary, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Commission.

Secretary to the President.

Secretary to the Prime Minister.

Secretary, Rajya Sabha/Lok Sabha.

Solicitor General.

♦Vice-Chairman, Central Administrative Tribunal.

24. Officers of the rank of Lieutenant General or equivalent rank.

25. Additional Secretaries to the Government of India.

Additional Solicitor General.

Advocate Generals of States.

Chairman, Tariff Commission.

Charge Affairs and Acting High Commissioners a pied and adinterim.

Chief Ministers of Union Territories and Chief Executive Councillor, Delhi,

outside their respective Union Territories.

Chief Secretaries of State Governments outside their respective States.

Deputy Comptroller and Auditor General.

Deputy Speakers of Legislative Assemblies in Union Territories and Deputy

Chairman, Delhi Metropolitan Council, outside their respective Union Territories.

Director, Central Bureau of Investigation.

Director General, Border Security Force.

Director General, Central Reserve Police.

Director, Intelligence Bureau.

Lieutenant Governors outside their respective Union Territories.

♦Members, Central Administrative Tribunal.

Members, Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission.

Members, Union Public Service Commission.

Ministers of Union Territories and Executives Councillors, Delhi, outside their

respective Union Territories.

Principal Staff Officers of the Armed Forces of the rank of Major General or equiva-

lent rank.

Speakers of Legislative Assemblies in Union Territories and Chairman of Delhi,

Metropolitan Council, outside their respective Union Territories.

26. Joint Secretaries to the Government of India and Officers of equivalent rank.

Officers of the rank of Major-General or equivalent rank.

Note 1. The order in this Table of Precedente is meant for State and Ceremonial

occasions and has no application in the day-to-day business of Government.

Note 2. Persons in the Table of Precedence will take rank in order of the number of the

articles. The entires in the same article are arranged alphabetically. Those

included in the same article will take precedence inter se according to date of

entry into that article. However, where the dignitaries of different States and

Union Territories included in the same article are present at a function outside

»Amendment made after 26.7.1979.

Page 5

their States or Union Territories and there is difficulty in ascertaining their

dates of entry, they may be assigned precedence inter se in the alphabetical

order of the name of States and Union Territories concerned after those

whose precedence is determined according to date of entry into that article.

Note 3. *In article 7, the former Prime Ministers will take precedence over the Cabinet

Ministers of the Union and the Leaders of Opposition in the Rajya Sabha and

the Lok Sabha. The Chief Ministers of States within their respective States

will take precedence over the Cabinet Ministers of the Union in official

functions held in the respective States.

Note 4. In Article 8—

(a) Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary and High Commissioners

of Commonwealth countries accredited to India with en bloc rank above

Governors of State outside their respective States;

(b) Governors of States outside their respective States with en bloc rank above

Chief Ministers of States outside their respective States.

Note 5. The Ministry of External Affairs may assign appropriate ranks to foreign

dignitaries and Indian Ambassadors. High Commissioners and Ministers

Plenipotentiary during their visit to India.

Note 6. In Article 10, the Deputy Chief Ministers of States outside their respective

States will always rank below all other dignitaries figuring in this article.

Note 7. The Chairmen of State Legislative Councils will rank above the Speakers of

Legislative Assemblies in cases where they were elected on the same date.

Note 8. When Members of Parliament are invited en bloc to major State functions,

the enclosures reserved for them should be next to the Chief Justice, Speaker

of the Lok Sabha, Ambassadors, etc.

Note 9. Speakers of Legislative Assemblies in Union Territories and Chairman of

the Delhi Metropolitan Council, Delhi, will take precedence over Ministers

and Executive Councillors, included in the same article.

Note 10. In Article as-

ía) Secretaries in the Ministry of External Affairs other than the Foreign Secre-

tary, between themselves, will take precedence in the order of their

seniority in Grade-1 of the Indian Foreign Services and both of them will take

precedence after the Foreign Secretary.

(b) Members of the Minorities Commission and the Scheduled Castes and Sched-

uled Tribes Commission will always take precedence over the Secretaries of

these Commissions.

(c) In official functions held at Delhi/New Delhi, Army Commanders/Vice Chief

of the Army Staff or equivalent in other services will always rank after Secre-

taries to the Government of India.

•Amendment made after 26.7.1979.

Page 6

29

Note 11. In Article 25-

(a) Additional Secretaries in the Ministry of External Affairs, among themselves,

willtake precedence in the order of their Seniority in Grade-11 of the Indian

Foreign Services;

(b) Additional Solicitor General will take precedence above the advocate

Generals of States;

(c) Lieutenant Governors will take precedence over the Chief Ministers and

Chief Executive Councillor, Delhi, and the latter will take precedence over

Speakers of Legislative Assemblies and Chairman, Metropolitan Council,

Delhi;

(d) Deputy Speakers of Legislative Assemblies of Union Territories and Deputy

Chairman of Delhi Metropolitan Council will take precedence after Ministers

of Union Territories and Executive Councillors, Delhi.

Note 12. for the purpose of Article 26, the posts equivalent to the posts of Joint

Secretaries to the Government of India will be determined by the Minister of

Home Affairs.

Sd/-

(K.C. MADAPPA)

Secretary to the President

i^ote: The above Table includes all amendments made therein so far.

Discussion about warrant of precedence

Warrant of precedence: Judicial supremacy not the aim

The High Court judgement declaring the warrant of precedence illegal was not intended to establish Judicial supremacy or embarking upon any sort of adventurism. In USA and neighouring India there was no legal sanction behind the warrant of precedence while enforcing it as state protocol.

In USA the wives of the deceased American presidents are placed above the judges of the supreme court. It could not be said that the judiciary was made subservient to the executive by this action. But the position of the surviving wives of the former Presidents of our country was not explained in our country’s warrant of precedence. The controversy in Bangladesh came at the centre stage of the discussion when the three services chiefs and secretaries of the government were ranked behind the district judges.

The judgement of a High Court bench comprising justice Syed Refat Ahmed and Justice Mainul Islam Choudhury remains pending before the appellate division as the Government secured a stay on its operation. The upper echelon of the administration appeared to be shaken following the High Court verdict refixing the status of the government functionaries in the warrant of precedence. Though it is absolutely within the policy making ambit of the executive it appears that the judiciary had to intervene as the warrant of precedence in the present form was arbitrary, unjust and without having any thoughful consideration.

That’s why the High Court bench considered it repugnant to the Constitution and rejected it outright.

The illegally declared warrant of precedence was framed in 1986. The High Court bench in its February 4, 2010 judgement made it void.

The much publicized judgement gives the government eight-point directions while prioritizing positions in the warrant of precedence. The judgement was stayed by the Appellate Division as the Government filed appeal against it. The writ petition which was disposed of in the High Court Division bench was filed in 2004 by Ataur Rahman, the then general secretary of the judicial officers Association.

The warrant of precedence seems to be the only way in determining the state protocol which individual government officers is entitled to enjoy. The government claims it was a matter to be determined by the executive branch. As per views expressed by the judiciary all government officials including three defence chiefs were subservient to the political leadership and they could not work independently.

That’s why they could not claim equal status with those of the law makers, judges and the political executives. The judges could not consider themselves mere employees as they exercise sovereign judicial power of the state by way of dispensing justice.

In their observations they said, the government officials including the secretaries could not be policy-makers. They perform their responsibilities only as per direction of the government and the political bosses. The bureaucrats always remain subservient to the political leadership of the country. But a judge is independent in his jurisdiction.

The three defence chiefs like other government functionaries were under political leadership. They have to obey the political leaders as per law of the country. So they could not be treated at par with the judges, political bosses and the law-makers.

The state has three organs: the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. All constitutional posts, constitutionally defined posts and recognised posts should precede all other posts in the republic. According to the judicial review the head of the executive organ of the state is prime minister and the organ comprises his or her state ministers and deputy ministers. The head of the legislature is the speaker and it comprises the members of the parliament and the head of the judiciary is chief justice while the judges of the higher and lower judiciary are its members.

In India the status of the district judges were kept at par with other government district officials. Their position remains the same as it was not challenged in the court. The district judges exercise their judicial power as per their inherent right which they enjoy as per the Constitution. They are not subservient to anybody while discharging their judicial powers. They could be equated with the law-makers, the review said. In India the warrant of precedence was not applied in day-to-day activities of the government. The Constitution of Pakistan is silent about the application of the warrant of precedence.

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